Steel from old tyres and ceramics from nutshells – how industry can use our rubbish

If someone said “green manufacturing” to you, what comes to mind is probably environmentally friendly products – solar panels, bamboo garments and the like. But there’s much more in this space. In fact, far greater environmental and economic impact can be achieved by looking further up the manufacturing chain.
Steel from old tyres and ceramics from nutshells – how industry can use our rubbish
© Csaba Deli – 123RF.com
There is huge potential in rethinking the energy and raw materials that go into our favourite and essential goods.

What I am talking about here is waste. What if we could turn rubbish into an input? Instead of viewing waste as a growing global burden, we could “mine” the world’s landfills – by using old tyres to make steel, for instance.

We’ve got a huge problem with waste

Globally, waste is becoming a huge problem. There has been an eightfold increase in materials consumed over the past century. There are several reasons for this: rapid industrialisation across Asia and other developing nations; the shortening of product replacement cycles; and the dramatic fall in the prices of consumer goods and an accompanying rise of consumer cultures.

The world’s three billion urban dwellers generate an average of 1.2kg of solid waste per person per day, according to the World Bank. Without innovation, landfills around the world will become increasingly clogged, exacerbating the loss of potentially valuable secondary resources and risking environmental contamination.

So let’s view this increase in waste as an opportunity. Around the world, the cost of raw materials are on the rise. Rethinking waste might help us solve both problems at once.

Rethinking waste

Our waste streams are becoming increasingly complex – mixed plastics, e-waste and auto waste, for example. As such, a lot of it simply cannot be recycled using conventional approaches like sorting through rubbish to extract glass and then recycling that into more glass. This phenomenon is another reason why our landfills are filling up.

But with new approaches we can overcome this. We can look at waste at the elemental level. The world’s waste mountains are packed with useful elements like carbon, hydrogen, silicon, titanium and other metals that we would otherwise have to source from virgin raw materials.

By identifying and processing these valuable elements, and redirecting them back into our industrial processes, we can simultaneously solve the problems of waste and the skyrocketing cost of inputs.

Some examples of waste in action

At UNSW’s SMaRT Centre we have been researching ways to reuse waste. So far we have achieved success in introducing waste polymers, mostly old tyres, as slag foaming reagents in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, a chemical reaction which is significantly important in EAF – just as in a cappuccino or a beer, the foam is crucial to a good-quality product. This process not only reuses a waste material, but improves energy efficiency, and reduces emissions and demand for non-renewable coking coal.

We have also recently published results of our research into the substitution of green petroleum coke with the waste shells of Australian macadamia nuts in the production of high-value silicon carbide and silicon nitride – super-hard ceramics that can be used for a range of applications from medical devices, to drilling tools, high-temperature engine linings for performance cars.

We discovered that macadamia shell waste, tens of thousands of tonnes of which are thrown away in Australia every year, is an excellent source of carbon with a very low ash content. This means less impurity, and hence cheaper costs for removing these impurities when replacing conventional coke.

Into the future

But it doesn’t end there. There is so much waste for which we have no answer yet. Every year tens of millions of vehicles are decommissioned, for example. While the metals that make up about 75% of a vehicle by weight can be readily and profitably recovered and recycled, the remaining plastics, glass, composites, complex materials and contaminants are mainly destined for landfill. For every car, some 100-200kg of complex and potentially toxic waste ends up as “automotive shredder residue” (ASR).

This poses a growing technical and environmental challenge worldwide, and represents a significant waste of finite resources.

We are investigating a range of transformations using ASR, including new pathways for creating alternative resources for the production of ceramic materials like silicon carbide and titanium nitride composites, produced using the silicon and titanium found in these residues. Instead of using conventional raw materials, like silica from quartz or carbon-bearing resources such as coke, waste automotive glass and plastic can be used.

This is just the start of reusing waste. There are still great advances to be made by combining these recovered resources with new modes of manufacturing. Imagine combining the ability to reform plastics with other new developments like 3D printers. In future we may use waste as an input that will enable us to locally print off something new, fully closing the materials loop.

Augmented Reality is shaping the future of dentistry

Clinical dentistry is a complex area of medical practice. Dentists need to have exceptional problem-solving abilities in order to combine the information obtained from patients and their experience for proper diagnosis. Now, identifying specific dental ailments and conducting surgeries turns out to be extremely challenging for dentists. This is where Augmented Reality can add value into their practice.
Augmented Reality is shaping the future of dentistry
For all those who are new to this technology, Augmented Reality involves overlaying digital information on real-world objects in your surrounding environment. The idea is to help you have a better understanding and new perspective of the world around you.

How does it work?

You project an app-enabled smartphone towards an object or marker, and it triggers multimedia content in the form of 3D models, animation, video or audio overlay. Augmented reality gives control in your hands so that you can engage with the items around you in an entirely different way.

Augmented Reality applications for smartphones, tablets and wearables like Google Glass are already transforming the healthcare and medical landscape including dentistry.

Surgeries

Oral and maxillofacial surgeries often require reconstruction of the head and neck. Here multidisciplinary communication is extremely important. A slight mistake can create several complications in surgery. Augmented Reality can help surgeons perform virtual surgery wherein they can know exactly where cuts are to be made. This can then be replicated in the operating room for greater precision and accuracy.

Also, surgeons feel anxious when they have to operate on an oral cavity while looking at surgical monitors. Such difficulties can be overcome by augmented reality applications for Google Glass. These applications directly overlay information onto the real-view of the surgeon.

Oral implantology

For oral implantology, doctors often have to reconstruct 2D images mentally. Doctors need to imagine how exactly a 2D image (concerning patient’s data) looks in 3D format. Now, this mental reconstruction is not easy. This, in turn, makes treatment planning all the more difficult.

Augmented Reality is redefining how dentists plan treatment by offering three-dimensional view in real-time. The technology is improving diagnosis, too, by giving insights on the exact orientation and position of implants in 3D.

What’s more, it even offers dentists the opportunity to move and interact with a patient’s anatomy with three degrees of freedom. The design and placement of implants can be interactively simulated and controlled in real-time. The results can be seen immediately and corrected accordingly.

Furthermore, inappropriate implants can be detected with regards to the quantity and quality of a patient’s bone.

Student training

Imparting dentistry education isn’t easy! Augmented Reality can help students quickly gain dental anatomy skills in less time. Right from learning about drilling instruments to conducting drilling procedures properly, AR facilitates the acquiring of skills.

3D oral cavity models can be overlayed on markers or within textbook chapters to have a better understanding. Students can also conduct virtual surgeries within an oral cavity to learn the use of drilling tools. All this is possible with 3D simulation.

Similarly, students can be taught about how to use rotary cutting instruments, mirror, explorer and high-speed hand pieces correctly using augmented reality.

Wrap up

Augmented Reality is turning out to be revolutionary for clinical dentistry. It is helping dentists get a real-world view of a patient’s dental anatomy to diagnose problems and conduct surgeries in a more clear-cut way. Besides, it’s also making dentistry training interesting and facilitating skills acquisition.

Indian power companies show interest in WAMPEX

Muskaan Power Infrastructure Limited, manufacturer of power and electrical equipment, has confirmed that the company will exhibit its range of power and electrical equipment at the West African Mining and Power Expo (WAMPEX) for the first time. WAMPEX takes place from 28-30 May at the Accra Convention Centre in Accra, Ghana.
Pai Kane 800KVA DG, powered by Perkins Engine.
Pai Kane 800KVA DG, powered by Perkins Engine.
Muskaan Power hopes to identify prospective customers, engineering, procurement and construction contractors and also set up joint ventures with agents in Ghana. “We are looking forward to meeting the many industry visitors that attend this important exhibition and helping them with their requirements,” says Ravi Mahajan, director of Muskaan Power.

First-time exhibitor Power Engineering (India) Pvt. Ltd. of the Pai Kane Group, is attending WAMPEX with plans to set up a dealer network in West Africa. The ISO9001, ISO14001 and OSHAS 18001 certified company, with more than 15 years of manufacturing experience, is the manufacturer of the Pai Kane brand of diesel generator sets, gas generator sets, lighting towers, electrical panels and compact substations.

Focus is on Africa

It exports products to a number of African countries, according to senior Sales and Marketing Manager, Raghavendra Ghosarwadkar. “We are continuously expanding our business activities, and plan to focus on Africa this year. WAMPEX is the most effective platform for us, offering many advantages and opportunities to promote our products in the West African region,” says Ghosarwadkar.

Gupta Power Infrastructure is a well-known manufacturer of overhead conductors and cables, including HT-LT power cables up to 132 kV, instrumentation cables and mining cables. The company recently launched a range of household wire cabling which is flame retardant and heat resistant.

Kuvawala Core Drill Equipment manufactures diamond-tip drilling equipment and will showcase its full range of in-hole drilling tools and accessories for both wireline and conventional drilling at this year’s WAMPEX show. The products are used extensively in mineral exploration drilling, soil investigation and geotechnical drilling applications.

Dentist Does More Than Just Drilling and Filling

Nobody wants to see the dentist, and why is that exactly? It probably has something to do with drills and your mouth. But what most people don’t realize is that he can fix your dental problems without any drilling whatsoever. New methods available meant that he can fill gaps, whiten teeth and even replace missing ones, all without the drill. Whatever problem you suffer from, your dental surgeon has the answer. Fill ‘Er Up Holes in your teeth? This is not a good state of affairs. Luckily, cosmetic dentistry offers inlays and onlays to fill up those holes. No more wind whistling through your pearly whites! Inlays and onlays are made of porcelain. This easy treatment can be done in just two appointments. At the first one, the physician makes a mold and gives you a temporary inlay to wear until the permanent one comes. At the second visit, they put in the new inlay and you’re ready to go. It works a lot like metal fillings, but porcelain won’t stop you at the airport security scanners. Treat Your Chipped Chompers Teeth are easier to chip than most folks realize. It just takes one slight misjudgment with a bottle, or some good-natured rough-housing getting a little out of hand, and WHACK – your smile tells the world you’re a careless idiot. For these little disasters, cosmetic dentistry offers composite bonding. This is another technique for filling gaps and holes, but it’s even easier. He puts in the composite material, which is made of various particles like silicone and quarts, and then uses light to bond it directly. Composites can be sculpted to fill your chips exactly. Nobody Likes A Yellow Smile Tooth discoloration strikes most of us at some time throughout our lives. It’s all the food and beverage we consumer over a lifetime, and there’s not much you can do to prevent it, no matter what those toothpaste ads say. That’s why there’s whitening. These days, whitening has become ridiculously simple. In just a few treatments, you can have that sparkly white movie star smile. There are a variety of treatments, but most involve your dentist putting a tray in your mouth with some goopy gel, and after a few treatments, your teeth will shine. Using Implants Get a tooth knocked out of your head? Maybe it’s time to give up playing hockey… But don’t worry this isn’t the end of your smile. Through a variety of methods, your dentist can now get your smile back, using implants. Dental implants use an artificial root to connect a new tooth so that your smile doesn’t have to suffer. These implants are generally better than traditional bridgework, and the result is more natural looking. After all, let’s face it: people equate missing teeth with homelessness. Let your dentist take the terror out of dental work. Get a free consultation with your dentist and see what options are available for fixing your smile. And you hear them warming up the drill, you can always say you have to make a phone call, and slip right out the door. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=549801&ca=Wellness%2C+Fitness+and+Diet

Why Hunt For Oil Drilling Rig Jobs?

Oil drilling rig jobs are not for the weak or faint at heart. These are jobs that can only be done by those with strength and courage. Work on offshore oil rigs is difficult with long hours, made dangerous by treacherous weather. Sometimes work has to be done in freezing cold rain, sometimes in the hot sun and humid windless heat. But if this was all that an oil rig worker had to look forward to, no one would do the job. But the oil industry is one of the few sectors which actually pay their front line workers well. They make a lot of money, and almost never have enough workers. That’s why offshore drilling companies are willing to pay $45,000 a year for entry level roustabouts. But this is not the only highly paid oil drilling rig job. Even the steward who does the housekeeping on board the oil platform receives very nearly the same salary. The cooks who keep the rig workers fed can receive up to $55,000, comparable to a high-ranking chef in a restaurant. In fact, anyone who has specialized skills, like a mechanic, electrician, welder, or scaffolder can expect to earn at least $55,000 a year even without prior offshore experience. And if you have the right type of post-graduate Geology degree, you are looking at a minimum of $80,000, not counting your sign-up bonuses. If you stick around long enough, maybe work hard for 10 to 20 years and find a unionized job, you have every chance of adding at least $10,000 to your starting salary. A 20-year veteran roustabout can easily ask for $55,000, earning $20,000 more than his counterpart in a construction yard. On land, only managers, salesmen, sports stars and movie stars can expect to earn as much. Of course, this is only comparing the salaries of normal human beings, not the superstars like Tiger Woods or Tom Cruise. All this money is being paid for you to do good, honest, hard work. This is money you earn that won’t give you sleepless nights. Unlike politicians and Wall Street bankers, you can face yourself in the mirror every morning when you shave without having to feel any guilt. The salary for oil drilling rig jobs certainly beats flipping burgers at McDonald’s or Wendy’s, doesn’t it? Obviously, to actually earn this kind of money, you need to go where there is work. For example, if you had stuck around South Texas in early 2009, you would probably be one of the many oil rig workers who were laid off. But if you had moved to East Texas, where there were companies hiring for oil drilling rig jobs, you would not have any problems finding work. And if you are willing to work offshore, companies like Transocean and Noble Corporation are hiring thousands of workers to crew their new offshore oil rigs. Simply put, if you have the strength and the courage, if you have the ability and willingness to work hard in difficult and dangerous situations and want to get paid well for these qualities, then oil drilling rig jobs are for you. Move to where the newer oil fields are located and you will have a better chance of getting hired. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=412336&ca=Career

Drilling For Oil: The New Science of Dietary Fat

Things have certainly changed when it comes to what we believe about fat calories. It wasn’t all that long ago that fats were considered the primary cause of all our weight problems and heart risks. But things have changed. Not only have some fats received a free pass to get out of the dietary doghouse, some have gone from bad guy to hero on the nutritional landscape. In the effort to create a faster, more efficient metabolism, one needs to navigate this nutritional landscape with a good map and a strong commitment, because nutrition and exercise are equally important to the process. And eating the right carbohyd-rates and fats is more important than skipping them altogether. The kind of fats we get from normal foods (you have to go out on a bit of a limb, or at least to the health food section, to find the flaxseed and fish oils that deliver the omega family) have been grouped into two categories, one of them very bad, the other tolerable if you don’t overdo things: saturated fats derived from animal sources (primarily meat and dairy) are the ones that clog our arteries, and must be watched closely. Its fine to consume them in moderation, but trouble awaits those who enjoy too many steaks per week. The other category is the unsaturated fats, those from nuts, avocados and canola oil, which are less likely to be absorbed by the body and can be consumed more liberally. Both categories deliver 9 calories per gram (as opposed to only 4 calories per gram of protein and carbohydrates), so regardless of artery issues they need to be managed to keep the calorie count in check. Saturated fats should comprise no more than seven percent of your daily calories, and the closer you can come to zero percent, the better. The darker the meat, the higher the saturated fat content – that’s why you never hear a diet comprised of chicken legs, it’s always chicken breasts. And then there’s the issue of the omega oils (also known as poly-unsaturated oils). These are truly the “essential oils” referred to these days, as they cannot be stored in the body as fat, and they deliver nutrients that help the heart stay healthy and the entire bio-chemistry of the body remain balanced. The primary source of omega-3 acids are fish oils and flaxseed oils, which means that unless you’re dining on salmon regularly (a great source of omega-3s), you’ll need to stock up on supplements. Important cousins of the omega-3 acid include the omega-6 (which delivers more linolenic acid) and omega-9 (found primarily in olive oil), which is not official an “essential” fatty acid because this one can be produced by the body using raw material from the presence of the other fatty acids. We now know that an accelerated metabolism is the key to optimizing your bio-chemistry, while serving other healthy functions. A slow metabolism is caused by bio-chemistry that results in the inefficient burning of calories to create fuel, but this can be changed through proper diet and exercise. Remember, the purpose of increasing your metabolism is so that your body will burn more calories and burn them fast, both while exercising and being active, and while at rest. This evolution – from a slow metabolism to a fast one – is the one single thing that differentiates lean people from heavy people, and it is the most powerful thing you can do to become leaner and healthier. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=352988&ca=Wellness%2C+Fitness+and+Diet

Drilling Down From the ‘Big Picture”

If you want to be sure that you know where you are going, start with the big picture of your life goals first of all. Just as in business plans, battle plans and other plans for key objectives, your personal development objectives plan needs to first tackle the major objectives by defining them clearly against the “smart” model to ensure that they are specific (do you know what they are), measurable (will you be able to tell if you have achieved them), achievable (are they within reasonable striking distance), realistic (do they make sense, do they bring a significant, positive and relevant change) and time-bound (by when or what date do you want to get this done). Once you have your objectives in place, it’s time to make your personal improvement strategy. This is a little lower than the 30,000 feet level that you were at with your objectives, but you are still pretty high up. Your strategy gives the major methods, elements or steps necessary to achieve your objectives. At the same time, it does not explain how to accomplish each of the major steps or how to implement the different methods required. To understand this better, you need to then drill down again to get to a tactical level and then a specific action level. Actions at ground level The tactical level of personal development planning is in fact just one step removed from the real ground-level action plan. The tactics describe, in a general way, the nature of the actions that you will carry out in order to execute on the strategy in order to attain your objectives. They’ll describe what you need to do, but without specifying when or where. They’ll also link back to your strategy. A tactic, as a stand-alone item, is often meaningless. It is when it is related back to the strategy and the objectives that it makes sense. Finally, your action plan lays out specific actions and timescales in order to really move towards your goals. Just like tactics, actions taken out of context don’t mean much. Any personal development action that you take must be clearly linked back to, via tactics and strategy to the overall objectives, so that it can be shown to be a valuable and relevant thing to do in the context of your “big picture”. Planning to win Let’s take an example from a military scenario. Let’s suppose that you are a commander whose objective is to rout enemy forces from their encampment on a hill where they are firmly positioned and defended. For good measure, let’s make this a “smart” objective by saying that you have 48 hours in which to do this. Your strategy might be to attack from the side where you know that the enemy has stockpiled its provisions on a rocky ledge and has posted fewer lookouts. Your tactical moves could then be to create diversions by bombarding the enemy at the front and on the other side, while your shock troops sneak round to scale the ledge and catch the enemy unawares. Your action plan then schedules the initial bombardment, the movement of your shock troops and the coordination of all attacks. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=277826&ca=Self+Help

Oil Drilling and the Election

So you think the politicians are pushing the Offshore Drilling idea because it is something that will make the price of gas go down? I guess you also believed that in the 2004 election, that this Administration was going to do something about Gay Marriage? The reality of what this Offshore drilling talk as ONLY about is a hot button issue to get people to vote a certain way. After they are in office do you think anyone is going to be so stupid as to drill for oil off the coasts of California or Florida? It is not going to happen! You have to understand that the price of oil is all about the market. India, China, Thailand, Malaysia are coming on-line and using more and more petroleum everyday increasing market demand and decreasing available supplies. Drilling off-shore is not going to change that. Just for argument sake, let’s say we start drilling for domestic oil. OK, we get more oil. The price of oil is based on the global market pricing. Do you think that if we had a local surplus of oil, which by the way is never going to happen no matter how many holes we put in the ground, that the oil companies are not going to sell that surplus to the highest bidder no matter where that could be?! Of course they will They are a company in business to make money. Will it bring down the price of oil to do more drilling? Of course not. It just allows the oil companies to get more oil to sell and make more money. Now you have Florida and California beaches that have a nice film of escaped oil on them. So much for the tourism economies of these two states! It is just not going to happen! These guys are just pushing people’s buttons to get them to do something that is actually against their better interests. It reminds me of when I was back in grade school. The class Smartelic would mess with the kids that were easily upset over petty little things that aren’t true or don’t’ really matter. We are supposed to be grown up now. Let’s act like it. Wouldn’t it be better if there was more talk about important issues like getting out of Iraq, taking care of Guantanamo, and getting a handle on the mortgage crisis? What should we do with oil companies windfall profits and tax breaks? Since these companies have sweet heart deals with the U.S. Government to get their tax breaks, we need to renegotiate these deals so that if they want the tax breaks, they have to give back as well. Whenever they have windfall profits, they should be required to use that money to do research and development into alternative energy resources. So when it comes time to vote, please remember what you read here and understand the truth of the matter. This is a “hot button” issue and that is all it is. Please vote for what is good for YOU. This issue has everything to do with Oil companies and their profits. Not your profit! Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=267879&ca=Politics